File system Hierarchy in Linux OS

Linux Hierarchy

What is a File system Hierarchy in the Linux Operating system?

File system Hierarchy defines which files will be stored in which location in the Linux Operating system.

Ex: If you take the Windows Operating system

user profile data will be stored in C:\users\

Operating system files are stored in c:\Windows,

Installed software information(files) is stored in C:\programme files, C:\program files x86 like this we Linux configuration files, media files, Data files, user profile data….etc are stored in different locations. The below reference image is the best example of the Linux File Hierarchy.



File system hierarchy in Linux

/ – This directory is called root directory, it is also called a Top-level Directory or parent directory.

Ex: C:\windows


/Root: This is the default home directory of the root. In Linux /Unix Administrator is called “ROOT”

/Home: This is the default home directory for all the users except root.

Ex: Documents & settings in windows.

/Boot: It contains kernel up to RHEL6 which is the core of the o.s, It contains files related to booting the o.s such as Boot Loader.

/sbin : Sbin stands for system Binary, It can contains commands which can only be used by Superuser.

Ex: Fdisk, dump…etc.

/Bin:  Bin stands for Binary; it contains commands, which can be used by Normal users.

Ex: Ping, cat, chmod,….etc.

/usr: (USR stands for user system resources), it contains programs and applications (system inbuilt soft wares) which are available for users.

Ex: Program files folder in windows.

/opt: This contains third-party/additional soft wares, which are installed.

/var: IT contains variable files such as logs and print queues.

/Dev: DEV stands for devices. It contains information about all Hardware devices.

/etc: It contains configuration files of services.

/tmp: It contains temporary files information.

/proc: It contains Background process & running applications information.

/mnt: It contains partitions & their mounted directories information.

/lib stands for the library, It contains system library files.

Ex: Similar windows folder. It gives a simple view of MUSIC, VIDEOS, PICTURES..

/run: It is from RHEL 7

This is the default mount point for removable storage media Ex Pen drive, CD/DVD.

/media: This can be used in RHEL 7 below versions to check removable storage media.


Anil Vanamali
Team Bhebo.

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